Edward Evans Stands Accused of Sabotaging Scott’s Southern Journey.
Did his actions lead to the deaths of the Polar Party, in 1912?
Arguably the best known scientific Antarctic venture was the British Antarctic Expedition of 1911–1913 led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott. Whilst the so-called race to the geographic South Pole with Roald Amundsen’s Norwegian Antarctic expedition excited international interest, the tragic death of Scott and his returning Polar Party was a striking reminder of the hazards of operating in the south. Recent work has highlighted the possible role expedition second-in-command Lieutenant Edward ‘Teddy’ Evans played in the deaths of Scott and his men. Here I report newly discovered documents which, when placed in a wider context, raise significant questions over Evans’ behaviour during the expedition. The evidence focuses on the shortage of food at key depots, the apparently deliberate obfuscation of when Evans fell down with scurvy and the failure to pass on orders given by Scott. It is concluded that Evans actions on and off the ice can at best be described as ineffectual, at worst deliberate sabotage. Why Evans was not questioned more about these events on his return to England remains unknown.
Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s, British Antarctic Expedition (1910-1913), also known as the Terra Nova Expedition, is in my opinion the most convoluted saga ever to play out on the ice of Antarctica. It is a complex tale of plot and subplot, with 34 men comprising of the Shore Party and Scientific Staff, who in the close confinement of their huts, and the vast expanse of the Antarctic wastes, weaved the epic tale of scientific research, pioneering journeys, glorious triumphs and desperate tragedy.
It is of course the desperate tragedy, with the death of all five members of the polar party, that has dominated and formulated opinion of the expedition ever since. Every available aspect of the venture has been scrutinised and re-scrutinised. When men die someone must be at fault, it seems. Despite the fact that Scott, Wilson, Edgar Evans, Oates and Bowers, all died returning from the southerly depths of the most inhospitable and remote territory on earth, many have sought to find a human element to assign the burden of blame to.
Scott himself has come under fire for perceived fault, the accusations ranging from bad planning, and his choice of ponies as a mode of transport as opposed to dogs, to his placement of One Ton Depot and his selection and demotion of the various members of the supporting teams, on the southern journey. All can be validly argued, and indeed counter argued, in most instances. Albeit that is, the placement of One Ton Depot, 30 miles shy of it’s intended standing, which did of course have massive repercussions, on the homeward journey. Lawrence Oates walked to his death, in the latitude where it should have stood, and Scott, Wilson and Bowers, all died, 11 miles shy of it’s more northerly footing. Continue Reading →
Honouring Tom Crean.
Centenary Expedition with the Crean family.
Honouring Tom Crean is a new book that charts the expedition by descendents of Kerry Antarctic explorer Tom Crean, to South Georgia on the centenary of his heroic traverse of the island with Ernest Shackleton and Frank Worsley.
Honouring Tom Crean: a centenary expedition with the Crean family
By Bill Sheppard
Aileen Crean O’Brien
Team Tom Crean faced serious challenges when Tom Crean’s granddaughter, Aileen Crean O’Brien, had a serious accident on the second day of their traverse on a hostile and remote Antarctic island
In Honouring Tom Crean: a centenary expedition with the Crean family, Bill Sheppard records the expedition he undertook with family members of the Antarctic explorer on the centenary of the Kerryman’s historic traverse of South Georgia with Frank Worsley and captain of the Endurance, Ernest Shackleton. Wishing to honour their renowned grandfather and great-grandfather, the Crean O’Brien family decided to retrace his footsteps on the thirty-six hour traverse that finally brought the three men to Stromness whaling station and salvation after months of being stranded in the frozen ice.
The book details the training and funding challenges Team Tom Crean faced in the year before departing Ireland for Antarctica. Once on the Shackleton Traverse, they believed they were finally close to completing their lifelong dream when disaster struck and Aileen had an accident that resulted in members of the Crean family, along with Bill, again being tested to the limits of their endurance on South Georgia.
Over many days, they faced physical and mental challenges which, Bill writes, they sometimes struggled to overcome. In their darkest hours, however, the spirit of the man they had come to Antarctica to honour inspired them to endure and to not give up. A century on, Bill Sheppard shows that Tom Crean’s character lives on, not just in his descendants but also in a very real way in the place where he made Polar history.
Tom Crean Antarctic Explorer Portrait.
To mark the 79th anniversary of the death of the Antarctic explorer, Tom Crean, this is a digital artwork, entitled ‘Tom Crean Antarctic Explorer Portrait’. Continue Reading →
The Voyage of the James Caird.
April 24th – May 10th 1916.
The Endurance Expedition (1914 – 1917).
It is without doubt the greatest open boat journey ever undertaken. Six men dragged their timber lifeboat down the rocky shore of Elephant Island, and cast themselves and boat, into the might and fury of the notorious Weddell Sea. Within moments the turbulent Southern Ocean had tipped the boat, plunging Harry McNish and John Vincent into the frigid waters. A grim reminder of what lay ahead, as the two men clambered back ashore.
And it was a gruesome journey. Shackleton would later recall “The tale of the next sixteen days is one of supreme strife amid heaving waters. The sub-Antarctic Ocean lived up to its evil winter reputation.” ‘Supreme strife’ scarcely conveys the immediate experience of McNish and Vincent, yet alone the remainder of that dreadful passage. It was 800 miles, over the course of sixteen days, in which time, they caught a glimpse of the sun, on only three occasions. That Worsley could guide them to that speck on the map, named South Georgia, in such circumstances, was a feat of navigational brilliance. On the tenth day at sea, the boat was walloped by an enormous wave, which towered above the vessel, before slamming down on them. The physics of the impact somehow contrived, that they emerged from the monstrous hit, afloat, albeit practically submerged. They bailed frantically for their lives, succeeded, and sailed onward. Ever onward. Continue Reading →
The Southern Sky Rescue Attempt.
The Endurance Expedition – May 23rd 1916.
Shackleton, Crean and Worsley had stumbled into Stromness whaling station on May 20th 1916, to the utter disbelief of all who endeavoured there. The trio were unrecognisable, shattered, destitute men, who had just completed the most epic of journeys, traversing ice, sea and uncharted land. With McCarthy, Vincent and McNish, they had left their 22 comrades behind on Elephant Island, on April 24th, and sailed over 800 miles across the storm lashed Weddell Sea, in their lifeboat, in search of rescue for them. That 16 day voyage was a hellish passage, that ended on May 10th 1916, in the death throes of a violent hurricane, that had enveloped them for the previous 24 hours. Somehow they had summoned the strength to fight the storm. Somehow, as they were tossed and battered by wind and wave, they had managed to avoid the rocky approaches and cliff faces of South Georgia, that the elements continuously hurled them towards.
As the fury abated, making landfall was of paramount importance. As to where, hardly mattered. These men were physically and mentally shattered, and parched; their fresh water supply having run out days beforehand. So dry were their mouths that they could not eat. There is no wrong side of the island to land upon in such a situation. Even in the relative post hurricane calm, it was an extremely difficult task, to weave their tiny timber boat through the rocky agglomerations that constitute the island.
Having finally landed, they found themselves on the opposite side of the island, to their intended destination of Stromness, but more importantly they found a fresh water stream. Over the course of the next few days the men recouped, for the task ahead. They sailed further up the inlet of King Haakon Bay, and set up quarterage, using the upturned James Caird, as as a shelter, at a place they named Peggotty Camp. Continue Reading →
The Endurance Expedition (1914 – 1917).
“Tom Crean’s role in the escape from the ice, is unique in that he was the only member of the Endurance Expedition to take part in every aspect of it.”
The term ‘challenge’ is without doubt a gross understatement, if used in the context of the unbelievable survival story, that was the Endurance Expedition. Odyssey probably is too. Yet after much research, I settled on it, as perhaps the most suitable of existing words, to somehow convey the magnitude of what the men of the sunken ship Endurance, undertook in the wake of it’s loss.
Being trapped in the ice of the notorious Weddell Sea, in February 1915, was not a cause for huge concern, despite the unseasonableness of it’s occurrence. The ship being pulverised and eventually sunk, by the immense pressures of the ice floes, however, was!
Endurance, snapping and shattering, in it’s frigid white vice, was abandoned on October 27th 1915. The wreckage remained abob, awhile, until finally slipping below the surface, on November 21st.
The enormity of their predicament had of course registered with the group, long before the precipitation of the ship’s timbers, to the fathomless depths below.
All that separated them from an identical fate, was the very ice they stood upon. Ocean Camp, established within plundering distance of their shattered ship, had been their first settlement on the drifting floes.
Twenty eight men, a pack of dogs, one cat, stock, store and lifeboats, drifting helplessly in the southern ocean, on an immeasurable sheet of ice. They had made attempts to march westwards across the ice, hauling their provisions in two of the lifeboats. It was back breaking work, that yielded little distance. As Frank Hurley had noted, there was scarcely a square yard of flat ice. The conditions underfoot were in fact atrocious. The men sank in soft snow and the icy surface was a series of hummocks and pressure ridges.
The plan had been to strike for Paulet Island, Robertson Island or Snow Hill Island, all of which lay over 300 miles away. After a week of heavy exertion, which had seen the group cover a distance of only seven miles, Shackleton aborted the operation, citing that it would take them over 300 days to complete the trek. An optimistic calculation, given that it was formulated at their initial pace, and hardly factored in the inevitable deterioration of the participants over the course.
The Escape From the Ice.
“There were twenty-eight men on our floating cake of ice, which was steadily dwindling under the influence of wind, weather, charging floes, and heavy swell. I confess that I felt the burden of responsibility sit heavily on my shoulders; but, on the other hand, I was stimulated and cheered by the attitude of the men. Loneliness is the penalty of leadership, but the man who has to make the decisions is assisted greatly if he feels that there is no uncertainty in the minds of those who follow him, and that his orders will be carried out confidently and in expectation of success.”
― from “South: The Story of Shackleton’s 1914-1917 Expedition”
The expedition ship Endurance, was snared by the ice of the Weddell Sea, in February 1915, in latitude 77º south. Over the course of more than 1,000 miles, the ship and it’s helpless crew, would drift, at the mercy of the ice sheet that held them captive. At latitude 69º south the Endurance finally yielded to the immense pressures of the crushing floes, and sank.
The twenty eight men of the expedition, had no other choice but to remain on the ice, and try to eke out an existence. Foresight on their part had ensured they had afforded themselves a future chance of survival; as they had salvaged three lifeboats from the ship, before it was pulverised.
In order to sail however, they needed leads of water, when all about them was heavy pack ice. But even in Antarctic climes, ice melts, and once it begins it can be an alarmingly rapid process.
It would take months though, before the men of the Endurance would witness this. Their first settlement on the floes was dubbed Ocean Camp. From here the first escape from the ice was planned. All of the groups supplies were loaded into two boats, which the men attempted to drag across the ice. It was backbreaking work, that ultimately proved futile, and almost caused a mutiny.
Tom Crean honoured on Norwegian’s Boening 737Max.
Recognition for Ireland’s Unsung Hero.
Ireland’s legendary Antarctic explorer to appear on Norwegian’s brand new Boeing 737MAX aircraft on Irish transatlantic flights this summer.
Norwegian and the Crean Family have announced that Irish Antarctic explorer Tom Crean will become its first Irish tail fin hero – the explorer’s portrait will appear on the airline’s new 737MAX aircraft that will serve new transatlantic routes from Cork, Shannon and Dublin to the US East Coast this summer.
Norwegian has always honoured iconic figures on the tails of its aircraft, featuring personalities who symbolise the spirit of Norwegian through innovation, pioneering achievement and inspiring others. Many of Norwegian’s existing tail fin heroes feature Scandinavian figures but to reflect the airline’s rapid growth in other markets, a series of new tail fin heroes is now underway featuring figures from the UK, Spain and now Ireland – Tom Crean will become Norwegian’s first Irish tail fin hero.
Born near Annascaul, County Kerry in 1877, Tom Crean enlisted in the Royal Navy aged 16, quickly becoming recognised as an accomplished sailor. In 1901, a chance encounter with Robert Falcon Scott saw Crean join Captain Scott’s ship ‘Discovery’ for a voyage of exploration into the unchartered realms of Antarctica. Like all the crew of Discovery, Tom Crean was a complete novice, in this freezing, white new world. However he soon established himself as a most valuable member of the pioneering endeavour, excelling in the newfound arts of sledging and man hauling.
Crean so endeared himself to Scott, that the Captain promptly recommended him for promotion, upon their return home, and asked that his entire expedition payments be back paid, to reflect his new position of petty officer, first class.
He returned to the comparative drudgery of regular Navy duty, based in Chatham, Kent. In 1906 Scott requested that Crean join him on Victorious, and the two would continue to serve together, from that point, until the day they parted company on Antarctica’s polar plateau, on January 4th, 1912.
That was on Scott’s Terra Nova Expedition (1910-1913), where Crean’s epic solo march, at the end of a 1,500 mile trek across the Antarctic wastes, would earn him the Albert Medal for Lifesaving. Tom Crean, Bill Lashly and Lt. Edward Evans bid their farewells to Scott and his polar party, 150 miles from the South Pole. They had been selected as the last supporting team, and would return to base, whilst Scott continued southwards with Wilson, Oates, Bowers and Edgar Evans. The five men reached the pole, only to discover that Amundsen had preceded them there, a month beforehand. All would die in wretched circumstances on their return march.
As the last support team made their homeward trek, Edward Evans’ condition gradually deteriorated; the consequences of which escalated from him being unable to assist in man hauling, to finding himself strapped onto the provisions sledge, being dragged forward by Lashly and Crean.
Over the course of the final 100 miles, the two exhausted men did everything in their powers to get their scurvy stricken Lieutenant to safety. But as they weakened, their progression slowed, and 35 miles from Hut Point, they thought their friend had died.
Evans would later recall how Crean’s warm tears fell onto his face and revived him, as the distraught Irishman wept over him. Buoyed by the partial recovery in Evans, Crean volunteered to walk the remaining distance to base, and raise rescue, whilst Lashly would remain with the patient. Sustained only by a couple of biscuits and a piece of chocolate, Crean completed the perilous trek in 18 hours. The expedition’s doctor, Edward Atkinson, and the Russian dog handler Dimitri Gerov, mounted a rescue mission, returning with both men alive.
Edward Evans, later to become 1st Baron Mountevans, would make a full recovery and always humbly remembered the gallant efforts of both Crean and Lashly, in saving his life.
Within a year of returning from the Terra Nova Expedition, Tom Crean had been recruited by Sir Ernest Shackleton, for his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914 – 1917). Again the Irish Giant would prove himself to be a most invaluable asset, to an Antarctic campaign.
After their ship Endurance, was trapped in, and ultimately crushed by the ice of the Weddell Sea, the 28 men eked out an existance, surviving on the drifting ice floes. Their escape from the clutches of certain death, is an unbelievable tale of their collective determination, endurance, bravery and utter proficiency, tinged of course with a little luck!
A dreadful seven day voyage in the ship’s three lifeboats, to Elephant Island, would see the men stand on land, for the first time in 497 days. Soon all 28 men were at sea again, as they were forced to move camp to Cape Wild. It may have only been a 7 mile journey, but any passage in the churning southern ocean, was fraught with danger.
From Cape Wild, Shackleton, Crean, Worsley, McCarthy, Vincent and McNish would complete the greatest open boat journey ever undertaken. The Voyage of the James Caird was an 800 mile, 17 day crossing of the notorious Weddell Sea, in a mere lifeboat. That they survived the constant battering of the ocean, thirst, hunger, cold and a violent hurricane, is quite frankly unfathomable. But they did.
Their next obstacle was the unchartered and untamed interior of South Georgia. Having landed on the wrong side of the island, Shackleton, Crean and Worsley had to traverse peaks, crevasses and glaciers, to reach the whaling station at Stromness. From here the seeds of rescue, for their stranded companions, were sown. It would take many months and many failed efforts, but finally on August 30th 1916, the three men, aboard the ship Yelcho, were afforded passage through the ice that encapsulated Elephant Island.
All 28 men survived.
Tom Crean was the only member of the expedition to take part in every aspect of the escape from the ice, and subsequent rescue. Whilst he was joined by Shackleton and Worsley, in completing the escape, when arriving at Stromness, Crean’s inclusion in Frank Wild’s exploratory first voyage to Cape Wild, in the Stancomb Wills, is what sets him apart.
The news that Norwegian are to honour Ireland’s unsung hero is tremendous. It is rightful recognition for a righteous man. Tom Crean was not just a hero to his expeditionary companions, he was a friend, of immense character, who always instilled belief, such was his unwavering calmness in the face of every danger they faced. He was loved, respected and greatly admired by all who served with him.
As the press release states, “Crean perfectly captures the essence of Norwegian’s tail fin heroes.”
That Crean has yet to be honoured fittingly, by his own country, is truly disappointing. Dismaying in fact, that a man of such stature and accomplishment, is not afforded the national recognition he deserves.
No doubt it is a time for reflection, for the board of Kerry Airport, who recently balked at the proposal of incorporating his name, in tribute; following a hugely popular social media campaign by Ireland Should Honour Tom Crean.
And no doubt it is a day to celebrate the memory of the great man, who has finally achieved recognition, befitting of his caliber. It is a proud day for the Crean family, to finally see Tom not just honoured, but remembered.
For that we can thank Norwegian!
There is currently a campaign underway to honour Tom Crean by naming an Irish Navy vessel in his honour.
You can sign the petition HERE.
Crean’s modest and humble personality meant that it is only in recent years that his extraordinary career received widespread public recognition, including a bestselling book about his life and even a Guinness TV advert created in his honour. Nicknamed the ‘Irish Giant’ for his strength and stature as well as his leadership qualities, Crean perfectly captures the essence of Norwegian’s tailfin heroes.
Norwegian CEO Bjorn Kjos said: “As Norwegian prepares for rapid expansion in Ireland this summer, our ‘tail fin heroes’ offer us a perfect chance to pay tribute to some of the greatest Irish men and women of all time. Tom Crean is an unsung hero and a truly inspirational figure so it is a great honour to have him adorn our aircraft and become our first ever Irish tail fin hero.”
Tom Crean’s granddaughter Aileen Crean-O’Brien has recently been adding to the Crean family story by recreating his expedition on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia – read more here.
The Crean family and Aileen Crean-O’Brien said: “We are delighted to honour our grandfather’s bravery and courage by bringing his name and exploits to Norwegian’s many US and European customers. As our family continues Tom Crean’s legacy with our own Antarctic exploits, we wish Norwegian the very best in their new endeavours.”
From July, Norwegian will launch a series of new low-cost transatlantic routes from Cork, Shannon and Dublin. The flights will serve smaller airports on the US east coast which offer good access into the New York, Boston and New England areas but carry significantly lower landing charges, allowing Norwegian to offer some truly affordable fares.
The new transatlantic routes will be operated on brand new Boeing 737 MAX aircraft – Norwegian is the European launch customer for this state-of-the-art new aircraft. Tom Crean will be one of the first tail fin heroes to appear on the new MAX aircraft.
Norwegian is Europe’s third largest low-cost carrier, carrying 30 million yearly passengers to more than 140 global destinations. Norwegian has been voted the Best Low-Cost Long-Haul Airline for two consecutive years at the renowned SkyTrax Awards, and the Europe’s Best Low-Cost Airline for four consecutive years.
Salvation At Stromness.
The Endurance Expedition (1914 – 1917).
“We had pierced the veneer of outside things. We had “suffered, starved, and triumphed, groveled down yet grasped at glory, grown bigger in the bigness of the whole.” We had seen God in his splendors, heard the text that Nature renders. We had reached the naked soul of man.”
One can completely understand why Sir Ernest Shackleton felt so poetic, when he stood above Stromness whaling station, with Tom Crean and Frank Worsley, on May 20th 1916. Whether the words came to him then, or in considered reflection afterwords, they tremor with the sheer magnitude of the moment.
For below the trio lay salvation. They had saved themselves. They would save their three companions, who had voyaged with them in the James Caird – McNish and Vincent, too ill to venture further, remained behind on the opposite side of the island, in the care of Timothy McCarthy. They would save their 22 comrades stranded 800 miles away on Elephant Island. And undoubtedly they had grown bigger in the bigness of the whole.
What they had overcome was simply colossus! How they had done it – unimaginable! How they conspired, endured, and overcame, to not just survive but to triumph, is quite frankly unfathomable.
And this was the moment! It was the moment the escape from the ice was over, and the rescue could begin. How glorious did the blubber drenched, whale stenched, galvanised garrison of Stromness, appear to the three men, that day? Continue Reading →
by Ronnie J. Smith.
I recently wrote an article about Ronnie J. Smith’s success in having Aeronautical Waypoints, in Antarctica, named after Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s ponies, and Roald Amundsen’s sled dogs. It was during correspondence at this time that Ronnie shared with me, one of his many wonderful poems, written in honour of the Irish Giant – Tom Crean.
The poem is taken from one of his excellent poetry collections, which is entitled The Last White Ruby: The Vanishing Polar Circles, and among the many other poems are The Explorers, Shackleton, To The Sled Dog and Sonnet To The South Pole Ponies, to mention but a few.